Immunology is one of the more complicated areas of the life sciences, and recent studies on the long-term efficacy of the mRNA vaccines against Covid-19 are prime examples of just how complicated it can be.

Novartis will manufacture the anti-cholesterol medicine Leqvio at the company’s own plant in Austria to supply the United States as the Swiss drugmaker seeks U.S. approval that has been delayed by regulatory concerns over a contractor’s Italian facility.

The head of the EU drug regulator’s Covid-19 task force said on June 13 that AstraZeneca’s coronavirus vaccine had a favorable risk-benefit profile for all age groups and particularly for those aged over 60.

Americans had the lowest number of babies in more than four decades during 2020, mirroring a slump in European birth rates, as the Covid-19 pandemic forced more people to take care of sick family members or deal with job losses. Birth rate in the United States fell 4 percent in 2020 to about 3.6 million babies, the sixth straight annual decline and the lowest since 1979, according to the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

Fewer Europeans trust the AstraZeneca Covid-19 vaccine after several countries reported side effects, such as blood clots, an opinion poll by YouGov showed on March 22, even though scientific studies have found it is safe and effective.

Russia’s Sputnik V could be produced in western Europe for the first time after a deal to make the Covid-19 vaccine in Italy was signed by the RDIF sovereign wealth fund and Swiss-based pharmaceutical company Adienne.

Confidence in Covid-19 vaccines is growing, with people’s willingness to have the shots increasing as they are rolled out across the world and concerns about possible side effects are fading, a 14-country survey showed on March 5.

Pfizer slashed in half the volume of Covid-19 vaccines the company will deliver to some EU countries this week, government officials said, as frustration over the U.S. drugmaker’s unexpected cut in supplies grows.

The European Union was asked to allow an extra dose of the Covid-19 vaccine developed by Pfizer and BioNTech to be taken from each vial, a practice allowed elsewhere that would make scarce supplies go further.

The EU campaign to vaccinate Europeans against Covid-19 got off to an uneven start in what will be a marathon effort to administer shots to enough of the bloc’s 450 million people to defeat the viral pandemic.