The U.S. Supreme Court rejected Merck & Co. Inc.’s bid to revive a $2.54 billion jury verdict the company won against rival drugmaker Gilead Sciences Inc. for infringing a patent in a dispute over a blockbuster hepatitis C treatment.

Three scientists will share the Nobel Prize for Medicine for their seminal discoveries that led to the identification of the Hepatitis C virus, a significant health problem across the globe that can lead to cirrhosis and liver cancer in patients.

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration approved Gilead Sciences’ Epclusa for hepatitis C (HCV) for use in children as young as 6 years of age or who weigh at least 17 kilograms.

A U.S. appeals court dealt a major blow to Merck & Co. Inc., upholding a ruling that threw out a $2.54 billion (£1.97 billion) jury verdict the drugmaker had won against Gilead Sciences Inc.

Gilead Sciences Inc. reported third-quarter results largely in line with Wall Street estimates, led by higher sales of the company’s HIV drugs, but deal-related costs led to a net loss.

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration identified 63 cases of worsening liver function in certain patients taking hepatitis C medicines made by drugmakers Merck & Co. Inc., Gilead Sciences Inc. and AbbVie Inc.

The only liver disease becoming more widespread in the U.S. is one driven by obesity and diabetes – NAFLD – even as other liver disorder types linked to drinking or hepatitis become less common.

AbbVie announced that the European Commission granted marketing authorization for Maviret (glecaprevir/pibrentasvir) to shorten once-daily treatment duration from 12 to 8 weeks in treatment-naïve, compensated cirrhotic, chronic hepatitis C patients with genotype 1, 2, 4, 5, and 6 infection.

Gilead Sciences Inc. said Kite Pharma Inc., the cancer-focused cell therapy company acquired in 2017, will become a separate business unit.

The U.S. FDA approved AbbVie’s Mavyret for all six strains of hepatitis C in children ages 12 to 17 years. The drug was approved for adults 18 years or older during 2017.