Leading pharmaceutical companies – including Moderna, Pfizer and AstraZeneca – are racing ahead to develop and distribute a Covid-19 vaccine.

Days after the U.S. Food and Drug Administration greenlit the restart of AstraZeneca’s Phase III Covid-19 vaccine trial, the U.K.-based company said the preventative medication boosts immune responses in older and younger adults against the novel coronavirus.

Moncef Slaoui, the head of Operation Warp Speed – the government project to push along the Covid-19 vaccine development – suggested the first Emergency Use Authorization (EUA) for a vaccine will likely be around Thanksgiving.

The U.S. government awarded $486 million to AstraZeneca Plc to develop and secure supplies of up to 100,000 doses of Covid-19 antibody treatment, a similar class of drug that was used in treating President Donald Trump.

A top U.S. health official told a U.S. Senate committee that he expects Covid-19 vaccinations to take place over many months and that most Americans could be vaccinated by July 2021 at the latest.

In anticipation of data from a Phase III vaccine candidate study potentially becoming available in October, Germany’s BioNTech acquired a manufacturing facility from Novartis to boost production capabilities for the preventative treatment for the novel coronavirus.

To quell concerns over the politicization of a potential vaccine for the novel coronavirus, nine pharmaceutical companies developing a preventative treatment signed a pledge promising to uphold the integrity of the scientific process ahead of any potential approval of a medication.

At least four of six different vaccine candidates financially backed by the U.S. government aimed at the novel coronavirus are predicted to fail in the clinic, according to a draft report from an analytics group cited by CNBC.

AstraZeneca Plc has begun enrolling adults for a U.S.-funded, 30,000-subject late-stage study of the company’s high-profile Covid-19 vaccine candidate.

The United States is tying payments for Covid-19 vaccines to timing milestones for production and approval, according to public documents and a Trump administration official, putting pressure on drugmakers including Moderna Inc. to meet ambitious targets.