Russia’s minister of health, Mikhail Murashko, indicated that the country is planning a nationwide program to vaccinate its population against Covid-19 starting in October.

With billions of doses of Covid-19 expected to be available by year’s end, and a global population of 7.8 billion, public health officials are scrambling to deliver the vaccines in ways that are equitable and effective. The challenge is about more than having a vaccine, and more than delivering it, public health experts at Johns Hopkins Medical School explained during a media briefing.

GlaxoSmithKline and Sanofi struck a $2.1 billion deal with the U.S. government’s Operation Warp Speed program to supply an initial 100 million doses of a Covid-19 vaccine candidate under development by the two companies.

Merck is joining the ranks of pharmaceutical companies that have a Covid-19 vaccine candidate in clinical development and will move the drug manufacturer’s candidate into clinical trials in third-quarter 2020.

Johnson & Johnson kicked off U.S. human safety trials for a Covid-19 vaccine after releasing details of a study in monkeys that showed the company’s best-performing vaccine candidate offered strong protection in a single dose.

British drugmaker AstraZeneca topped second-quarter sales and profit estimates and backed the company’s 2020 forecasts, helped by strong sales in lockdowns of a diverse product range that includes a potential coronavirus vaccine.

A brief roundup of some of the latest scientific studies on the novel coronavirus and efforts to find treatments and vaccines for Covid-19, the illness caused by the virus.

Three months after joining forces to develop an adjuvanted vaccine for Covid-19, Sanofi and GlaxoSmithKline reached an agreement with the U.K. government to provide up to 60 million doses of the preventative medication.

Russia’s first potential Covid-19 vaccine will win local regulatory approval in the first half of August and be administered to frontline health workers soon afterwards, a development source close to the matter told Reuters.

Moderna Inc. is planning to price the company’s coronavirus vaccine at $50 to $60 per course — higher than other vaccine makers have agreed to charge governments, the Financial Times reported.