The United States entered an agreement with drugmaker Moderna Inc. to acquire 100 million doses of the company’s potential COVID-19 vaccine for around $1.5 billion, the company and White House said.

Arcturus Therapeutics Holdings Inc. said the first group of participants were dosed in an early-stage trial testing the company’s Covid-19 vaccine candidate and that results from the trial were expected in fourth-quarter 2020.

Russia became the first country to grant regulatory approval to a Covid-19 vaccine, after less than two months of human testing.

Days after reports of Novavax Inc.’s experimental Covid-19 vaccine candidate producing antibodies in healthy patients in a clinical study, the company announced a license agreement with Serum Institute of India Private Limited (SIPL) to develop up to 1 billion doses of the preventative drug in India and other countries.

Johnson & Johnson’s Janssen Pharmaceutical Companies entered into an agreement with the U.S. government for the large-scale domestic manufacturing and delivery in the United States of 100 million doses of Janssen’s SARS-CoV-2 investigational vaccine, Ad26.COV2.S, for use following approval or Emergency Use Authorization by the Food and Drug Administration.

Russia’s minister of health, Mikhail Murashko, indicated that the country is planning a nationwide program to vaccinate its population against Covid-19 starting in October.

With billions of doses of Covid-19 expected to be available by year’s end, and a global population of 7.8 billion, public health officials are scrambling to deliver the vaccines in ways that are equitable and effective. The challenge is about more than having a vaccine, and more than delivering it, public health experts at Johns Hopkins Medical School explained during a media briefing.

GlaxoSmithKline and Sanofi struck a $2.1 billion deal with the U.S. government’s Operation Warp Speed program to supply an initial 100 million doses of a Covid-19 vaccine candidate under development by the two companies.

Merck is joining the ranks of pharmaceutical companies that have a Covid-19 vaccine candidate in clinical development and will move the drug manufacturer’s candidate into clinical trials in third-quarter 2020.

Johnson & Johnson kicked off U.S. human safety trials for a Covid-19 vaccine after releasing details of a study in monkeys that showed the company’s best-performing vaccine candidate offered strong protection in a single dose.