Several cancer vaccine candidates are flying through clinical trials with promising results. Unlike traditional vaccines that aim to prevent a disease from occurring, therapeutic cancer vaccines train the patient’s immune system, enabling T cells to patrol the body for cancer cells and destroy them.

Clinical trials for BioNTech’s cancer vaccines should start this year in Britain, marking an important step towards their possible sale on the open market, the German company’s top executive Ugur Sahin told magazine Der Spiegel.

Advances in immuno-oncology and adaptive cell therapy that began about a decade ago are enabling fresh, biology-driven approaches to bring therapeutic cancer vaccines closer to fruition.

In what seems like an unlikely collaboration, Seattle-based Fred Hutchinson Cancer Center (Fred Hutch) is partnering with Amazon to develop cancer vaccines.